Male factor Infertility causes and diagnosis
When couples feel troubles in conceive despite of trying for over a year, 20% of them become unable due to male infertility factor. A male infertility is found by evaluation for semen abnormality, however there are several factors that affect male fertility irrespective of good semen.
Main cause of male infertility
Male infertility is possible due to a different type of conditions. Few of them are recognizable and treatable for example duct obstruction, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Whilst those that cannot be treated are bilateral testicular atrophy. Possible causes of male infertility are:
- Inadequate sperm production
- Improper sperm motility
- Sexual problems due to which semen cannot properly enter into female’s vagina for egg fertilization
- Low hormone magnitude that is necessary for testes
- Low sperm antibodies
- Genetic causes
- Prostate related issues
- Unavailable Vas deferens
- Premature ejaculation
- No ejaculation or erectile dysfunction
- Irregular intercourse
- Injury to spinal cord
- Prostate surgery
Male infertility types
- Asthenospermia-It shows the poor sperm movement. Normally 50% of sperms should be active that is required for healthy progressive motility. Inadequate sperm motility is named as weak astheno called asthenospermia.
- Azoospermia– It describes the unavailability of spermatozoa in the semen.
- Oligospermia-It describes the low count sperms present in ejaculated semen such as lower than 20 million sperms per mm. A normal sperm count is 20 to 120 million per mm.
- Teratospermia- It specifies the lower level of normal sperms that is below 15% sperm of normal structure. It is further classified into two types:
- Nominal Teratozoospermia- Only 10 to 15% sperms have normal shape
- Vigorous Teratozoospermia- Below 5% sperms of normal shape.
Diagnosis of male infertility
The infertile couples should see their doctor as soon as possible. Your physician will suggest a series of tests to find the cause of infertility. In few cases the causes can never be found. Diagnosis of male infertility problems includes-
- Physical test and medical history- Genitals are examined and various questions are asked to find the inherited conditions, chronic health issues, sickness, injuries etc that could affect fertility.
- Semen analysis- Semen sample is taken by masturbating and ejaculation in a special container at the clinic or by using a condom to collect semen during sexual intercourse.
- Your semen is sent to a lab to find the count of sperm and observe for any possible abnormalities in shape and motility of the sperm.
- Ultrasound- Ultrasound uses high frequency sound waves to develop images in your body. An ultrasound of scrotum helps physicians to observe varicocele or other issues in the testicles and related parts.
- Hormone analysis- The hormones released by pituitary gland and testicles have a major role in sexual and sperm development. Issues in other hormonal parts may add to infertility. Blood tests are taken to measure the testosterone and other hormones.
- Genetic analysis- If sperm concentration is very small, the blood test is taken to find a genetic cause if possible.