It is completely a new term to many women and a few of those who know about it are able to tell every detail about this peril. There is no good in PCOS rather than bringing its complications, side-effects and above all infertility.
What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?
It is an endocrine disorder where a woman starts producing more male hormones (androgens). This hormonal imbalance leads to many changes in the body and the end result is infertility. Estrogen and Progesterone are the main hormones that are necessary for reproduction in a woman. Once these hormones are in deficiency, a woman will experience irregular periods which makes it hard for her to conceive. A study shows that 2 women in 20 suffer from PCOS and they are in the childbearing age. This problem affects the ovaries of a woman that are responsible for the development of eggs necessary for fertilization.
The cause of PCOS in Women
The actual cause of PCOS is unknown, but a number of factors are to blame.
It is believed that PCOS run through the blood and if at all a mother or any other female member suffered from PCOS, this problem may affect the ones to come
- Insulin levels
The food that we eat must be broken down and converted into energy to empower us to carry out our daily activities. Glucose is what is formed from the food and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin. If the insulin levels are low or unhealthy, there will be an increase in the sugar levels in a woman. This is a common issue with women affected with PCOS
- Low-grade Inflammation
In case the white blood cells are not effective, the body will not be able to fight infections and other threats which make it possible for the ovaries to stimulate androgen production in the body
- Environmental factors
These include stress, unhealthy habits like smoking, and poor nutrition might be the other causes of PCOS
Symptoms of PCOS in Women
The symptoms of PCOS normally vary from one woman to another. In some women, it can be noticed from the first time of their menstrual periods. Many times the symptoms depend on the severity of the PCOS otherwise many may not get them in the early stages which require frequent checkups.
It is where there is excessive hair growth in a woman, especially in the facial region, arms, and the legs.
- Menstrual irregularities
This is when a woman loses track of her periods or miss periods
- Male pattern hair loss
It may start as thinning of hair and only increases
It is when the ovaries fail to release an oocyte during the menstrual cycle of a woman
- Acne or pimples
The breakout becomes more than it was.
Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
There are different diagnostic measures taken by a doctor, especially judging from the signs and symptoms that a woman is faced with. During the consultation period, the doctor observes the body weight of the patient, menstrual cycle as the woman may detail it and the medical history. Other diagnostic methods include the following;
- An Ultrasound
A Transducer is used to get images of the woman’s reproductive system including the ovaries. It is placed in the vagina and emits waves that create images a screen. The ovaries and the thickness of the lining of the uterus are the major targets.
- Blood Tests
- Blood is removed from the patient to carry out the following tests
- Fasting glucose tests to measure the blood sugars are carried out
- A glucose tolerance test to measure the glucose levels
- Triglyceride levels and fasting cholesterol tests
- Thyroid function tests
- A pelvic examination
A doctor looks at the reproductive organ of the woman to find any possibility of an abnormality or infections.
The effects of PCOS on a woman
Women with PCOS always have to deal with a number of effects psychologically and physically. The high levels of androgens in a woman lead to acne and menstrual problems. These are stressful and can lead to depression.
Women with PCOS also have to deal with insulin and its resistance in the body. It occurs after the insulin can no longer support the glucose utilization in the body. It leads to diabetes in the long run
Acanthosis Nigricans a body condition where dark patches develop on the skin is also another effect of PCOS in women
Unable to conceive due to the fact that there are menstrual irregularities and anovulation
PCOS can also lead to endometrial cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Treatment of PCOS
PCOS treatment in India is done in the following ways
- A laparoscopic ovarian diathermy and gonadotropins
A laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive method used with gonadotropins to stimulate ovulation. It helps a doctor to remove the cysts from the ovaries.
- A Bariatric surgery
This is normally used in the case of extremely obese PCOS patients.
- Assisted Reproduction Techniques
These include IVF, ICSI, and GIFT. In these procedures, the sperms are and the eggs are collected from the man and woman respectively, and joined together in a dish for fertilization. The embryo is transferred back into the woman’s uterus for development. Tests, patient follow-up, and monitoring must be done.
It is used to treat and correct insulin levels in PCOS patients. It makes the body become more sensitive to insulin and regulate the glucose levels in the patient. In the end, it improves cholesterol levels and reduces the chances of Type 2 diabetes
- Weight loss and better nutrition practices
Cutting down weight through physical exercises and having healthy meals is recommended in all women with PCOS, especially the extremely obese patients.
- Clomiphene Citrate
This treatment can also help to stimulate ovulation and pregnancy. It is normally taken in smaller doses at first and increase as the doctor may recommend. It can be taken in the form of tablets or injections.
PCOS Treatment cost in India
It has no clear or actual cost to be pointed at, but the cost normally depends on the treatment selected. It also goes in hand with the hospital and the doctor.