Some couple face issue getting pregnant and sometimes it might get complicated. During this process, there are many things which might go wrong which results in infertility. Additionally, the issue of infertility is not with women, men also face this issue. Approximately 15% of couple experience difficulties fertility. For this, we have mentioned some common causes which affect fertility in men and women. The couple who are facing issue getting pregnant should consult with the health care provider to find the possible treatment options.
Common Issues- Female infertility
- Ovulation problem
One of the most common problems of female infertility is the failure to ovulate and this issue is common in around 40% of women. The women whose menstrual cycle is irregular or absent indicate that ovulation is either absent or irregular. This problem can occur because of different causes.
- One of the issues which affect the process of ovulation is PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) or primary ovarian insufficiency (POI).
- Aging affects the ovarian reserve which means the number of eggs is decreased as women age.
- The women who are having a problem of Endocrine disorders such as thyroid disease also face the issue in ovulation. This also affects the hormones which the body produces.
- Problem with Menstrual Cycle
Some women face the issue in a menstrual cycle which means either the monthly cycle is absent or not regular. Moreover, this cycle prepares the female body to conceive and if this is not proper it can lead to infertility. There are different phases included in the menstrual cycle and if there is a problem at any one stage it might get difficult for women to get pregnant.
- PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)
Another common cause of infertility is PCOS. When women ovaries produce androgen hormone more than required it leads to this condition. Due to this, it affects the development of ovarian follicles and during ovulation, the egg will not be released properly. As a result, within the ovaries cysts can also develop.
- The structural problem with the Reproductive System
In this case, there is abnormal tissue present in the Fallopian tube or uterus. When the Fallopian tube is blocked or damaged the egg is not able to reach the uterus. The sperm is also not able to reach the egg for fertilization. There is some structural problem that can affect fertility.
- One of the common cause of the structural problem is endometriosis, it is tissue which lines inside the uterus and it can also block the fallopian tubes.
- In some cases, women with fibroid are not able to conceive naturally or might face the problem of multiple miscarriages.
- If the shape of the uterus is not proper, it will affect implantation and women cannot carry a pregnancy to term.
- The egg does not get mature
Due to different reasons such as PCOS, overweight, or lack of proteins the egg is not able to mature properly. Further, the egg is not able to release at the correct time which means they might not reach the fallopian tube or they are not able to fertilize.
Common Issues – Male infertility
- Problem with sperm
One of the most common causes of men infertility is when the sperm is not able to reach the egg for fertilization. Sperm is found in semen which is a milky fluid that is released during orgasm. This issue can result in different problems.
- Around one-third of the couple are not able to conceive because of low sperm count. During ejaculation, the men release less sperm than required. Research showed that men who have sperm count lower than 15 million will face difficulties in getting pregnant.
- Sometimes, sperm motility (movement) also creates a problem. This means the sperm is not able to reach the women’s reproductive tract for egg fertilization.
- The shape of the sperm is not accurate which make sit harder for it move and fertilize the egg.
- Abnormal semen
In some cases, the semen is abnormal which means it cannot carry the sperm effectively. This problem is because of different reasons such as ejaculation disorder, hormonal imbalance, or any medical condition (infection, cancer, or surgery). Another issue is overheated testicles which can result from wearing tight clothes, use of hot tubs, or varicose vein.
- Genetic Factor
For successful pregnancy men should have two chromosomes which are X and Y. Sometimes the men have 2 chromosomes and one y chromosome. Due to this, the testicles will not develop properly and it might affect the testosterone level which decreases the sperm count.
Being overweight is not at all good for overall health. In the same way, if you are men or women and if your weight is not normal then it affects your fertility. For conceiving successfully it is very important to lose a few kilos or pounds. This problem can also affect the health of the baby growing inside you and there are high chances of miscarriage.
The sperm health can get affected because of some infection as it can also cause scarring around the passage of the sperm. Some of the infections are like inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) and sexually transmitted infection (HIV or gonorrhea). For this, you should get treatment and the problem can be solved easily.
- Hormonal imbalance
Some of the other causes of infertility are because of disorder of the testicles which affect the hormonal system and it includes the hypothalamus, adrenal glands, and pituitary glands. If the level of testosterone is very low or any other hormone it can also result in the issue of infertility.
Some couple decides to focus on their career and due to this, they avoid the most common cause which affects fertility. As we age, the fertility level naturally decreases. After the age of 40, it becomes difficult for men and women to conceive successfully. In that case, the treatment of IVF and IUI can help the couple to become parents.
- Use of illegal drugs
Another reason for infertility is the use of illegal drugs, steroids, and medications for a long time. Additionally, these drugs also affect sperm quality and quantity.